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THE QUINOA


The Quinoa Real is a natural product of Bolivia, has as scientific name CHENOPODIUMQUINOAWILLD, plant cultivated in the Bolivian altiplane from the epoch of the Incas, is of type quinopodíacea pseudo cereal, which produces an edible small seed of 2.63 mm. Of diameter, round grain semismoothed of white yellowish color.

 

Our knowledge of the past has managed to determine the beginning of the agricultural activities specially of the quinua in Bolivia; Nevertheless the historians coincide in indicating that the agriculture played a role fundamentally in the life of the former Bolivia, reaching his major development in the epoch of the INCAS.

 

At present it is very valued by his multiple kindness:

 

  • The quinua does not have cholesterol
  • does not form fats in the organism
  • does not put on weight, is of easy digestibility
  • Content of saponina 0.08 % .
  • Is a natural ecological product

 

The QUINOA is considered to be a culture C4, that is to say, the photosynthesis realizes to high temperatures and hinge of an efficient way the carbon in the soil (ground).

 

The QUINOA is a grain nutracéutico for his food and medicinal qualities, and thanks to it he enjoys an increasing demand on the domestic and foreign market.

 

DISTRIBUTION AND GROWING

 

The QUINOA grows in the Andean zones of Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Chile and Argentina, and countries of the north hemisphere as Canada, USA and England already are cultivating it. In our country he is cultivated from the level of the sea up to 4,000 m of altitude.

 

It has a time of growth from 90 to 220 days, depending on every variety, and can manage to produce between 3 and 5 Tm/ha of grain. Also it is obtained near 4 Tm/ha of dry matter by a content of 18 % of proteins, which gives him a potential as plant forrajera.

 

MORPHOLOGY

 

HEIGHT: The QUINOA is a herbaceous plant that can reach 2 m of high place.

 

STEM: His stem is thin, of tubular form and can have or not secondary branches.

 

LEAVES: The leaves of the QUINOA have diverse forms and colors, generally green, red or purple.

 

INFLORESCENCE: The QUINOA has a terminal inflorescence in top, which gives place to a cob loaded with seeds.

 

SEEDS: The seeds measure up to 2.5 mm, and have high nutritional value, with good balance sheet of amino acids, and content of saponinas.

 

ECONOMIC POTENTIAL

 

It has great economic potential and discharge demands on different markets of the world as Japan, USA and United Kingdom, where already it has been introduced successfully. The increase of his agricultural border and a just price for the farmers, he will benefit the settlers altoandinos.

 

FOOD:

 

- The seeds of the QUINOA are in use in the preparation of soups, also they are consumed in form sowed with salt or sugar, cooked in torrejas with chili (aji) or cheese, and as refreshing drink.

 

- The tender leaves can be used as fresh vegetable, and cooked they are used in different soups.

 

- The seeds combined with honey serve for the production of energetic bars, and bathed in chocolate for the preparation of sweets.

 

 

MEDICINAL:

  • Some studies hold that, due (because of) to his content of fitoestrógenos, the QUINOA can anticipate the cancer of breasts, the osteoporosis and other chronic feminine diseases originated by the lack of oestrogens during the menopause.
  • Since disgusting, lactóforo, anti-spasmodic, laxative and diuretic.
  • For twistings and contusions.

 COSMETIC: The flour disuelta in water like mask and for the wash of the hair.

 

FORRAJERO: The dry matter from his cultivate for the cattle.

 

NUTRITIONAL VALUE

 

The QUINOA has an exceptional nutritional value, with proteins of high biological value and excellent balance  of essential amino acids, located in the endosperma or core of the grain, unlike other cereals that have them in the exosperma or rind (shell), as the rice or wheat.

 

The QUINOA offers the major quantity of essential amino acids that any of the most important cereals of the world, emphasizing the lisina that is one of the scantiest in the food of vegetable origin and that is present in the human brain.

 

In 100 gr of fresh seeds it is had:

 

 

ELEMENT                 %

> Damp                      12.6

> Proteins                   13.8 to 16

> Ethereal extract        5.1

> Carbohydrates         59.7

> Fibers                      4.1

> Ashes                      3.3

> Lisina                       0.88

> Metionina                 0.42

> Triptofano                0.12

> Fats                         4 to 9

 

 

VARIETIES

 

  1. Of I remind QUINOA's ecotipos, generally 5 categories are recognized:
  2. Type Valley, that grows in the Andean valleys between 2,000 and 3,600 msnm,       with long periods of growth.
  3. Type Altiplánico, which develops about the lake Titicaca, resistant to frosts, without branches and of period of short growth.
  4. Type Salar, own of the salares of the Bolivian altiplane, with resistance to saline and alkaline soils.
  5. Type of Mar's Level, which it develops in the south of Chile and does not possess branches.
  6. Subtropical Type, of the interAndean valleys of Bolivia, of green intense and orange color.

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786-10069 martisova@yahoo.com

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